Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.
The programme concentrated on practical approaches and methods, and aimed to develop skills and attitudes essential in the rapidly changing workplace. It involved learning about the workplace and raising confidence.
Part of the Work and Opportunity series, the report looks at: Summary Summary All young people need appropriate preparation for the rapidly changing workplace.
However, underachieving boys and young men appear to be especially reluctant to seek and accept advice, while being particularly badly affected by recent changes in the work environment. The project found that: Most of the young men responded very quickly to the practical nature of the programme.
They saw the relevance for their futures and engaged with enthusiasm. An unexpected result was that many of the young men reported that the programme helped them to refocus on their school work and enabled them to identify what they could get from school before they left. They wanted their skills to be measured, but not by written examination.
The programme worked because the workers always used a practical focus, discussion-based materials and - most importantly - engaged with the young men individually and expected them to do the same. Schools took some time to integrate the programme into the curriculum.
There were initial difficulties in identifying appropriate young men to participate. Schools often looked at the short-term value of non-curricular programmes, rather than the longer term.
A particular set of skills and approaches was required to develop this type of programme with underachieving young men. As New Deal, Connexions and a range of other initiatives target this group, there may be a skills shortage among those able and willing to work with underachieving young men.
Most of the 63 young men in the study were on the margins of both school and the workplace. Most, on reflection, thought that school had been a missed opportunity.
Many were full of regret that they did not try harder and engage more actively within the school environment. The research was followed up with a practical piece of work within schools.
The aim was to develop a programme that would effectively prepare socially excluded young men for the workplace. The same programme was delivered in all schools. Engaging the young men The schools suggested the project work with young men who were disengaged with at least part of the curriculum.
They found the focus on their futures, their aspirations and what they wanted to do very attractive.
The young men also found that the focus on practical skills and interactive methods fitted their preferred learning styles. They were encouraged to take the course seriously, and were expected to behave like adult men both in the school-based sessions and on workplace visits. Classroom management techniques were rarely needed; a reminder of the purpose of the course was usually all that was required to get individuals focused.
The young men were helped in engaging with the programme by: Programme benefits The young men reported that as a result of their involvement in the programme, they felt more confident about their skills and their learning.
They made such comments as: It also helped them to identify barriers they would need to overcome: While the project team hoped that these would be the benefits of participation, one of the more unexpected results was that the course helped to refocus the young men on their school work.
They made such comments as "the course helped me remember the qualifications that I will need", and "I know what subjects I need to concentrate on".
Since the delivery of the programme, the schools have reported a change in attitude for some of the young men, and a change in attitude towards particular subjects for most of the young men. Opting for competence assessment The young men were offered two options for assessment:It is unbecoming of a man to identify as a victim, thus I never encourage men to see themselves in this way.
However, a boy raised by a single mother or family with a submissive father has been deprived his birthright. These are the lost boys, the unwitting victims of poor parenting.
I label. In the s a panic started about boys’ ‘underachievement’ in North America, Australia, the UK and some other parts of Western Europe.
In , the UK’s Chief Inspector of Schools called it “one of the most disturbing problems facing the education system” and it remains prominent in recent policy reports and media coverage. Thank you for your interest in The Howard School at what I think is a very exciting time to be part of the school’s community.
Our local and national reputation as a school where results challenge the stereotypical view of underachievement in young men continues to grow. [page unnumbered] 19th February Dear Secretary of State I have the honour to present the Final Report of the Committee set up in to inquire into the .
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Sex differences in education are a type of sex discrimination in the education system affecting both men and women during and after their educational experiences. Men are more likely to be literate on a global average, although women are more prevalent at in some countries.
Men and women find themselves having gender differences when attaining their educational attainments.