Types of Powers in Organizations by Diana Dahl - Updated September 26, Power is the ability to exercise control over a person or group. Everyone has power, yet people differ in the kinds of power they possess and how they utilize their power.
Read below to learn about some of the techniques you can use to gain power in your organization. Bargaining is the use of negotiations through the exchange of benefits or favours.
The party having greater bargaining power is able to get more benefits than the sacrifices made. Collective bargaining agreements between labour and management are the result of negotiations.
A person can gain power over another person by the use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble and being friendly prior to making a request. Coalition is the temporary alliance of two or more individuals or groups who combine their efforts and energy for the common goal.
By forming a coalition, the members are able to increase their power over groups not in their coalition.
|Video of the Day||Sherman, EdD, RN, FAAN Recently, a professional colleague was the victim of a power play in her organization that led ultimately led to her having to leave her position.|
Coalitions are generally used in organisations for having influence on setting of goals and distribution of benefits to the constituents.
Due to the scarcity of the resources in the organisation, various groups compete with each other to have a greater share of such resources. For this, they try to influence the criteria used as the basis of resource distribution in the form of funds, space, support staff etc.
Each group argues for those criteria which are likely to fetch it more power.
Under the scheme of cooptation a group gives some of its important positions of members of the other groups or includes them in its policy making committee. Hence the criticism and threats from those other groups are blunted. For example, corporations generally include representatives of the financial institutions in their board of directors, in order to maintain stable relationships with the financial institutions.
A person can use reasoning to gain power over others. Reasoning consists of use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas.
Assertiveness is the use of a direct and forceful approach. The manager may demand strict compliance with requests repeating orders, ordering individuals to do what is asked and pointing out that rules require compliance.
Some managers may gain the support of higher levels in the organisation to back up their requests to their subordinates. Sanctions consist of traditional reward and punishment method.
A person can gain power over another person by preventing or promising a pay rise, by demoting or promoting a person or by threatening to give an unsatisfactory performance appraisal. Pressure tactics are a part of power struggle in modern organisations.
It is a hostile method of gaining power. For example, the trade unions may threaten strikes if their demands are not met by the management.
On the other hand, management may threaten a lock out in the factory, if the trade unions do not accept its terms.For example, referring to the use of power can infer that people are being dominated, manipulated or coerced.
However, similar to the concept of conflict, power almost always exists in organizations. which use pay raises, promotions, or threats of dismissal, are essentially utilitarian organizations. NORMATIVE POWER: Is power which rests on the beliefs of the members that the organization has a right to govern their behavior.
One responsibility that isn't explicitly outlined in any contract is the use of power in the workplace. Striking a balance between using a managerial position to encourage or motivate and instill fear and intimidation is a delicate one – and with vastly different results.
Power can be used in many ways in an organization. But because of the potential for its misuse and the concerns that it may engender, it is important that the mangers . 3. Individual managers often fixate on one of the bases for power in organizations – position or hierarchy power.
However, studies of effective change agents in organizations, as well as effective managers, have shown us that effective individuals use whatever source of power they have. They also substitute one source for another.
When the heads of organizations are unsure of the bases for the exercise of power and become defensive, the easy solution is to play for time by invoking rituals which may temporarily relieve anxiety.