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Different forms of equality are distinguished by the dimension that is held to be the same.
Within political theory, three main forms of equality can be distinguished: Modern political theories generally accept that each individual has moral and political equality.
The distinguishing feature of egalitarianism is its interpretation of this equal status as requiring substantive equality, i. Egalitarianism is an inherently normative view, and more specifically, a view about distributive justice—that is, about the appropriate distribution of benefits and burdens.
The account of these benefits and burdens varies from one egalitarian theory to another. For instance, some egalitarians believe that levels of benefit should be measured in terms of resources, others in terms of well-being, and still others in terms of basic capabilities.
Egalitarians also disagree on whether benefits should be distributed equally or whether equality of substantive condition in some other sense i. Accordingly, each egalitarian theory has its own account of equality. In practical terms, egalitarianism is strongly associated with the political left, but different brands of egalitarianism are associated with different brands of left-wing politics, from traditional socialism or social democracy to a less distribution-focused politics of identity.
This article provides an overview of egalitarianism, primarily focusing on its development in contemporary political theory. White offers a broader account of equality, including both theoretical and applied topics. Holtug and Lippert-Rasmussen collects original essays from key contemporary writers on egalitarianism.
Pojman and Westmoreland provides a selection of key historical and contemporary texts on equality. Wolff and Anderson cover both historical and contemporary debates, including that between luck egalitarians and relational egalitarians. Gosepath and Arneson provide overviews of equality and egalitarianism, respectively, arranged by subtopic.
Kymlicka is an influential introduction to political philosophy with a particular focus on themes relating to equality.
Edited by David Estlund, 40— Oxford University Press, Edited by Edward N. A brief introduction to the concept of equality and its various senses, with a particular focus on distributive equality. Holtug, Nils, and Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, eds.
A major collection of essays addressing a wide range of topics from the foundations of egalitarianism to the place of animals in theories of equality. A seminal introduction to normative political theory, with a substantial chapter on liberal egalitarianism, and enlightening discussions of equality e.
This compact volume surveys key questions concerning egalitarianism, including the value of equality, the nature of equality, the role of responsibility within egalitarian theories, and whether equality should be extended globally.
A reference work with important readings on equality from historical figures, such as Aristotle, Hobbes, and Rousseau, and contemporary theorists, including John Rawls and Robert Nozick. Edited by George Klosko, —The following diagrams illustrate the rapid growth of income inequality [measured by Gini Coefficient trends] and Poverty in the era of Thatcherism but also that subsequent Conservative and Labour Governments were unable to reverse the growth of income inequality.
What Did Equality Mean for the Founders?
The Egalitarians the idea of equality was fully consistent with the notion of liberty. Or, as she puts it, equality .
|Equality: The Unknown Ideal | Mises Institute||Equality—not, as one might expect, liberty. The original draft of the Declaration highlights the importance of equality still more clearly.|
|The Idea of Equality in America - Foundation for Economic Education||One argument is that liberalism provides democratic societies with the means to carry out civic reform by providing a framework for developing public policy and thus providing the right conditions for individuals to achieve civil rights.|
Religious Freedom "Religious freedom," if properly understood, should be a principle that everyone can embrace. It encompasses freedom to practice one's religion, freedom in matters of religion (e.g., freedom from religion), and, more broadly, freedom in matters of conscience.
The idea offers a framework for a rational argument between egalitarian and non-egalitarian ideas of justice, its focal point being the question of the basis for an adequate equality (Hinsch ). Both sides accept justice as proportional equality. The sociology of education.
As noted in the previous chapter, there had been a number of reasons for the growing dissatisfaction with selective secondary education - not least, the discrediting of the theory of innate intelligence on which it was based.
Slouching Towards Gomorrah -- Modern Liberalism and American Decline is a book by Robert H. Bork, who served as Solicitor General, as Acting Attorney General of the United States, and as a United States Court of Appeal judge.
He has been a partner in a major law firm and during the '60s taught constitutional law at Yale Law School.