What are the long-term effects of ingesting fluoride on our bones? Fluoride is a bioaccumulator and is toxic to bones The results of more than five epidemiological studies indicate increased hip fractures in both naturally and artificially fluoridated areas. The incidence of hip fracture is also increasing more rapidly than can be accounted for by aging of the population.
However, studies of health effects of long-term particulate air pollution have been less conclusive. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures.
Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. Based on several severe air pollution events, 1 - 3 a temporal correlation between extremely high concentrations of particulate and sulfur oxide air pollution and acute increases in mortality was well established by the s.
Subsequently, epidemiological studies published between and reported health effects at unexpectedly low concentrations of particulate air pollution. These new standards were challenged by industry groups, blocked by a federal appeals court, but ultimately upheld by the US Supreme Court.
Long-term exposure to indoor molds is certainly unhealthy to anyone, but some groups will develop more severe symptoms sooner than . For the long-term exposure at the grid cell level, we found an odds ratio (OR) for every μg/m 3 increase in long-term PM exposure of (CI = . A long-term capital gain or loss comes from a qualifying investment that was owned for longer than 12 months before being sold.
Both of these studies have been subjected to much scrutiny, 5 including an extensive independent audit and reanalysis of the original data. Participants resided in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and were generally friends, neighbors, or acquaintances of ACS volunteers.
Enrollment was restricted to persons who were aged 30 years or older and who were members of households with at least 1 individual aged 45 years or older.
Participants completed a confidential questionnaire, which included questions about age, sex, weight, height, smoking history, alcohol use, occupational exposures, diet, education, marital status, and other characteristics.
Vital status of study participants was ascertained by ACS volunteers in September of the following years: Reported deaths were verified with death certificates.
The actual size of the analytic cohort varied depending on the number of metropolitan areas for which pollution data were available.
Table 1 provides the number of metropolitan areas and participants available for each source of pollution data. Air Pollution Exposure Estimates Each participant was assigned a metropolitan area of residence based on address at time of enrollment and 3-digit ZIP code area.
Many of the particulate pollution indices, including PM2. The mean concentration of each pollutant from all available monitoring sites was calculated for each metropolitan area during the 1 to 2 years prior to enrollment.
The quarterly mean values for all stations in each metropolitan area were calculated across the study years using daily average values for each pollutant except ozone. For ozone, daily 1-hour maximums were used and were calculated for the full year and for the third quarter only ie, July, August, September.
As a consequence of the new PM2. For each site, quarterly averages for each of the 2 years were computed. Measurements were averaged first by site and then by metropolitan area. Although no network of PM2. Mean sulfate concentrations for were available for many cities based on data from the Inhalable Particle Monitoring Network and the National Aerometric Database.
Recognizing that sulfate was artifactually overestimated due to glass fiber filters used at that time, season and region-specific adjustments were made.
Ion chromatography was used to analyze PM10 filters and this data could be obtained from metropolitan areas across the United States.
Filters were collected for a single reference year in the middle of the study period. The use of quartz filters virtually eliminated the historical overestimation of sulfate.
Mean sulfate concentrations for were estimated using sulfate from AIRS, data reported directly from individual states, and analysis of archived filters. Statistical Analysis The basic statistical approach used in this analysis is an extension of the standard Cox proportional hazards survival model, 21 which has been used for risk estimates of pollution-related mortality in previous longitudinal cohort studies.
Second, even after controlling for available risk factors, survival times of participants living in communities closer together may be more similar than participants living in communities farther apart, which results in spatial autocorrelation.
If this spatial autocorrelation is due to missing or systematically mismeasured risk factors that are spatially correlated with air pollution, then the risk estimates of pollution-related mortality may be biased due to inadequate control of these factors.
Therefore, in this analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model was extended by incorporating a spatial random-effects component, which provided accurate estimates of the uncertainty of effect estimates. The model also evaluated spatial autocorrelation and incorporated a nonparametric spatial smooth component to account for unexplained spatial structure.
A more detailed description of this modeling approach is provided elsewhere.Long/short equity is an investing strategy of taking long positions in stocks that are expected to appreciate and short positions in stocks that are expected to decline.
Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide.
Why you should not take antibiotics for acne. Acne comes back over 80% of the cases and antibiotics may do long-term harm to your skin. ProShares Ultra VIX Short-Term Futures ETF seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, that correspond to one and one-half times (x) the daily performance of the S&P VIX Short-Term Futures Index.
Home > ‘So long’ to limits on short-term plans ‘So long’ to limits on short-term plans Consumers in many states can now purchase longer short-term plans, but a significant number of states have their own (shorter) limits.
Chlorine is the most common water treatment to kill bacteria living within it. Chlorine is added not only to swimming pools, but also is often found in tap water.