For example, the "practice of test-first development, planning and writing tests before each micro-increment" was used as early as NASA's Project Mercuryin the early s. A NASA independent test group can write the test procedures, based on formal requirements and logical limits, before the software has been written and integrated with the hardware.
The Trouble with Behaviourism - How a humanist teacher keeps his students motivated Humanism would concentrate upon the development of the child's self-concept.
If the child feels good about him or herself then that is a positive start. Feeling good about oneself would involve an understanding of ones' strengths and weaknesses, and a belief in one's ability to improve.
Learning is not an end in itself; It is the means to progress towards the pinnacle of self-development, which Maslow terms 'Self-actualisation'. A child learns because he or she is inwardly driven, and derives his or her reward from the sense of achievement that having learned something affords.
This would differ from the behaviourist view that would expect extrinsic rewards to be more effective. Extrinsic rewards are rewards from the outside world, e.
Intrinsic rewards are rewards from within oneself, rather like a satisfaction of a need. This accords with the humanistic approach, where education is really about creating a need within the child, or instilling within the child self-motivation.
Behaviourism is about rewards from others.
Humanism is about rewarding yourself! Much of a humanist teacher's effort would be put into developing a child's self-esteem. It would be important for children to feel good about themselves high self-esteemand to feel that they can set and achieve appropriate goals high self-efficacy.
This form of education is known as child-centred, and is typified by the child taking responsibility for their education and owning their learning. The behaviourists might advocate positive reinforcement such as praise, and punishment in the form of negative criticism. Both praise and blame are rejected by the humanists.
Children can become addicted to praise, and put much effort into receiving praise from their teachers. Such children will often work for the praise, and not work if their efforts go unnoticed.
This is so unlike an interested adult surfing through the internet, who derives satisfaction from learning something new, even though nobody is around to witness this acquisition of knowledge.
If education is preparing the child for adult life, it would seem the humanist approach is the correct one. The humanist teacher is a facilitator, not a disseminator, of knowledge. Participatory and discovery methods would be favoured instead of traditional didacticism i. As well as the child's academic needs the humanistic teacher is concerned with the child's affective or emotional needs.
Feeling and thinking are very much interlinked. Feeling positive about oneself facilitates learning. Humanistic - The self or the individual is important.
Not the similarities between humans as much as the individuality of humans. Rogerian Phenomenological theory Important terms: Client-centred therapy - clients define the problems, propose a solution and implement it.
Development of human potential is highly valued; the attainment of material goals is de-emphasised. Skinner - perfect society described in his novel, Walden II, - positive reinforcementno aversion.
Trying to create a better society by openly controlling its inhabitants with positive reinforcement. Rogers believes that Skinner assumes that social control will be in the better interests of society, but doubts that this would really happen.
Skinner - the most effective practices would survive.
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|Context and principles for early years progression | Essay Example||Early childhood education Early childhood education is a ton of small pieces that makes up one beautiful picture. It has many elements working together for a common goal.|
Rogers - society should self-actualise. Self-actualisation - directional process - maturation - increased competence, survival, reproduction etc. Other theorists would see these as goals, but Rogers sees these as merely tendencies that characterise an overriding process.
Self-actualisation - moves towards self-government, self-regulation and autonomy. Self-actualisation - need to develop in the direction of healthy, competent, and creative functioning. If unhealthy - this can be because of bad life experiences. Important to have open communication.
We listen to others, and according to what they say we can introject and believe this is what we are.order to emphasise that there is a continuum from the emanating from the conceptions of learning approach is the distinction helps explain why practices stay th e same even when.
Explain the legal status and principles of the relevant early years framework/s, and how national and local guidance materials are used in settings The EYFS is a number of curriculums for children aged birth till 5 years old/5(1).
Explain Why Early Years Frameworks Emphasise A Personal And Individual Approach To Learning And Development EYMP Explain the legal status and principles of the relevant early years framework and why the early years frame work emphasises a personal and individual approach to learning and development The legal status and .
EYMP 1 CONTEXT AND PRINCIPLES FOR EARLY YEARS PROVISION Question: An explanation of the legal status and principle of the relevant Early Years Framework and why the early year frameworks emphasise a personal and individual approach to learning and development The statutory framework for the EYFS sets out the .
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7 Nursing Theories To Practice By. September 12th, a few years into practice I started to realize that the work I do– the care I provide — is all based on my theory of what is right for my area of nursing — and my theory (ugh, there's that word) is hardly original.