It also provides the student with safe food-handling procedures necessary to manage a sanitary and safe food service operation in compliance with the national Food Code and National Restaurant Association guidelines. The successful completion of the ServSafe Sanitation exam will result in a national sanitation certification. The course includes exploration of the tourism, lodging, food and beverage and related industries, along with the operational characteristics unique to each and the critical concepts of service management.
August 20,Columbia University Dry grassland and oak landscape of the Coastal Mountain Range are among the parts of California most affected by the current drought.
This photo was taken in August A new study says that global warming has measurably worsened the ongoing California drought.
While scientists largely agree that natural weather variations have caused a lack of rain, an emerging consensus says that rising temperatures may be making things worse by driving moisture from plants and soil into the air. The new study is the first to estimate how much worse: The findings suggest that within a few decades, continually increasing temperatures and resulting moisture losses will push California into even more persistent aridity.
The study appears this week in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The record-breaking drought is now in its fourth year; it is drying up wells, affecting major produce growers and feeding wildfires now sweeping over vast areas. The researchers analyzed multiple sets of month-by-month data from to They looked at precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind and other factors.
They could find no long-term rainfall trend. But average temperatures have been creeping up—about 2. Natural weather variations have made California unusually hot over the last several years; added to this was the background trend.
Thus, when rainfall declined inthe air sucked already scant moisture from soil, trees and crops harder than ever.
The study did not look directly at snow, but in the past, gradual melting of the high-mountain winter snowpack has helped water the lowlands in warm months.
Now, melting has accelerated, or the snowpack has not formed at all, helping make warm months even dryer according to other researchers. Jennifer Bernstein Due to the complexity of the data, the scientists could put only a range, not a single number, on the proportion of the drought caused by global warming.
The paper estimates 8 to 27 percent, but Williams said that somewhere in the middle—probably 15 to 20 percent—is most likely. Last year, the U. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration sponsored a study that blamed the rain deficit on a persistent ridge of high-pressure air over the northeast Pacific, which has been blocking moisture-laden ocean air from reaching land.
Lamont-Doherty climatologist Richard Seager, who led that study and coauthored the new onesaid the blockage probably has nothing to do with global warming; normal weather patterns will eventually push away the obstacle, and rainfall will return.
But the new study says that evaporation will overpower any increase in rain, and then some. This means that by around the s, more or less permanent drought will set in, interrupted only by the rainiest years. More intense rainfall is expected to come in short bursts, then disappear.
Many researchers believe that rain will resume as early as this winter.
People will have to adapt to a new normal. A paper by scientists from Lamont-Doherty and Cornell University, published this February, warned that climate change will push much of the central and western United States into the driest period for at least 1, years.
A March study out of Stanford University said that California droughts have been intensified by higher temperatures, and gives similar warnings for the future. They showed that massive irrigation from underground aquifers has been offsetting global warming in some areas, because the water cools the air.
Now, aquifers are dropping fast, sending irrigation on a downward trajectory. Scientists call this process "positive feedback.
It has "brought together the most comprehensive set of data for the current drought," he said.Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Important: Leave most of the blocks (search criteria) blank. Only fill in the blocks that will help you in your search.
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