Seen on Tumblralong with associated discussion:
The capital of Freedonia has a population of 9, No city in Freedonia has a population of 9, Freedonia is to the north of Sylvania. We have chosen sentences about fictional countries featured Analyzing short stories the Marx Brothers' movie Duck Soup to emphasize that your ability to reason about these examples does not depend on what is true or false in the actual world.
If you know the meaning of the word no, and also know that the capital of a country is a city in that country, then you should be able to conclude that the two sentences in 6 are inconsistent, regardless of where Freedonia is or what the population of its capital is.
That is, there's no possible situation in which both sentences could be true. Similarly, if you know that the relation expressed by to the north of is asymmetric, then you should be able to conclude that the two sentences in 7 are inconsistent.
Broadly speaking, logic-based approaches to natural language semantics focus on those aspects of natural language which guide our judgments of consistency and inconsistency. The syntax of a logical language is designed to make these features formally explicit. As a result, determining properties like consistency can often be reduced to symbolic manipulation, that is, to a task that can be carried out by a computer.
In order to pursue this approach, we first want to develop a technique for representing a possible situation.
We do this in terms of something that logicians call a model. A model for a set W of sentences is a formal representation of a situation in which all the sentences in W are true.
The usual way of representing models involves set theory. The domain D of discourse all the entities we currently care about is a set of individuals, while relations are treated as sets built up from D. Let's look at a concrete example. Our domain D will consist of three children, Stefan, Klaus and Evi, represented respectively as s, k and e.
The expression boy denotes the set consisting of Stefan and Klaus, the expression girl denotes the set consisting of Evi, and the expression is running denotes the set consisting of Stefan and Evi. Diagram of a model containing a domain D and subsets of D corresponding to the predicates boy, girl and is running.
Later in this chapter we will use models to help evaluate the truth or falsity of English sentences, and in this way to illustrate some methods for representing meaning.
However, before going into more detail, let's put the discussion into a broader perspective, and link back to a topic that we briefly raised in 5. Can a computer understand the meaning of a sentence?
And how could we tell if it did? This is similar to asking "Can a computer think? Suppose you are having a chat session with a person and a computer, but you are not told at the outset which is which. If you cannot identify which of your partners is the computer after chatting with each of them, then the computer has successfully imitated a human.
If a computer succeeds in passing itself off as human in this "imitation game" or "Turing Test" as it is popularly knownthen according to Turing, we should be prepared to say that the computer can think and can be said to be intelligent.
So Turing side-stepped the question of somehow examining the internal states of a computer by instead using its behavior as evidence of intelligence. By the same reasoning, we have assumed that in order to say that a computer understands English, it just needs to behave as though it did.
What is important here is not so much the specifics of Turing's imitation game, but rather the proposal to judge a capacity for natural language understanding in terms of observable behavior. As a result, it can capture aspects of natural language which determine whether a set of sentences is consistent.
We'll start off with a simple example: This structure is the logical form of 8. Propositional logic allows us to represent just those parts of linguistic structure which correspond to certain sentential connectives.
We have just looked at and. Other such connectives are not, or and if In the formalization of propositional logic, the counterparts of such connectives are sometimes called boolean operators.
The basic expressions of propositional logic are propositional symbols, often written as P, Q, R, etc.Many companies are now taking a close look at the protections provided by cyber risk insurance policies — some for the first time — as data breach incidents and related cyber risks continue to increase and gain publicity, and as government agencies become more actively involved in policing the corporate response.
Analyzing the Meaning of Sentences. We have seen how useful it is to harness the power of a computer to process text on a large scale. However, now that we have the machinery of parsers and feature based grammars, can we do anything similarly useful by analyzing the meaning of sentences?
Ray Bradbury: Short Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Ray Bradbury: Short Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Once upon a time there were three little pigs. One pig built a house of straw while the second pig built his house with sticks.
They built their houses very quickly and then sang and danced all . 1 ANALYZING LITERATURE: A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS THINKING ABOUT THE GENRE Literary analysis is a genre that in many ways resembles an argument: you make a claim about the. Stepping Up Our Game: Re-focusing the Security Community on Defense and Making Security Work for Everyone.
Since the first Black Hat conference 20 years ago, the security community, industry and the world have changed to the point that it's time to re-examine whether we're .